Waste water treatment is a procedure used to eliminate pollutants from sewage or wastewater and turn it into an effluent which can be either reused as an end-product for various other purposes, or released into the natural environment. Most common types of waste water treatment are carbon filters, activated sludge filters, aerobic biopurification, carbon absorption filters, submicron filtration, membrane filter, ultraviolet light, ultra violet light, and multi-media block.
In various industrial sectors, different procedures are used, and depending upon the requirements and available technology, different options are available. These systems can either be used for drinking, sewage or industrial purposes.
It is known that liquid and solid wastes are not removed from the natural surroundings. The natural environment is made up of dissolved organic materials, which include water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. It has a definite life cycle, in which it becomes a pollutant. The natural processes involved in the natural processes include: precipitation; absorption by land plants, and decay of plant matter; movement through soil and surface waters; and being absorbed by the groundwater system. The dissolved organic material are further broken down into small particles, which are released into the natural environment through the water bodies.
Water that enters the drinking supply system has many contaminants in it. This includes drugs, bacteria, heavy metals and many types of other chemicals. Drinking water is known to contain large amounts of these chemicals. They can be carcinogenic and even cause skin rashes, asthma and hair loss in people who are exposed to these contaminants. There are a number of water treatment methods that are available in the market, which are designed to remove these contaminants. The most common ones include:
This process involves passing water through various membranes in order to remove the chemical contaminants, before being returned into the natural environment. The membranes also act as a trap for any organic materials that would be deposited in the water. This type of system also allows the removal of sediments such as leaves, branches, pine needles and other similar materials. which are usually present in water. This type of system does not use electricity and uses only natural sunlight for heating and cooling the water. The disadvantage of this type of treatment is that they require more energy than other types of water treatment systems. It is also known to cost more than some of the other systems because of its construction.
This process uses UV lights in the form of UV light tubes in order to break down the chemical contaminants. and prevent them from being absorbed by the surface of the pipes. This type of process costs less than other types of systems, but they produce noxious emissions when they are active.